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Trabzon is home to 440 unique plant types and 2500 plant types that are rare throughout Turkey. Trabzon is highly rich in forests, green areas, plant species and wildlife. Trabzon is a natural habitat for many tree species such as spruce, fir tree, beech, yellow pine, alder and chestnut trees are grown from the seaside up to 2000 m.
Founded in an area of 4685 m2, Trabzon is located at the beginning of the Caucasian mountains and Iran transit road. The city is also connected to the ports of other countries bordering the Black Sea.
As well as being a tourist destination that can be visited for four seasons due to its historical and natural beauties. Now the city has a population of 740.000, but it has been used as a settlement since the ancient times.
There are several ideas about the foundation of Trabzon. The most common of these is that the Central Asian tribes through the Caucasus founded the city. However, when a 4000-year-old settlement was revealed, the idea that the city’s history dates back earlier has become clear.
The name Trabzon is for the first time seen in Anabasis, which is an ancient source telling the events in 4th century and is written by Greek Commander Kesnophon. In ancient times, Miletusians came to the Black Sea area and established colonial cities along the coast. Trabzon is also considered among these colonies and many researchers show this as the foundation of the city. However, it is known that many local people lived in Trabzon since before that.
The city remained within the borders of the Pontus Empire, founded in the Black Sea region in 280 BC. Entering under the Roman rule after the dissolution of Pontus Empire, Trabzon became one of the most well-known and richest cities. Many religious and military buildings, waterways, aqueducts and ports in the city were built during this period. Remaining within the boundaries of the Eastern Roman Empire after the Roman Empire was divided into two, Trabzon was filled with Muslim Arabs in time and fell under Ottoman rule in 1461.
Trabzon is home to 440 unique plant types and 2500 plant types that are rare throughout Turkey. Trabzon is highly rich in forests, green areas, plant species and wildlife. Trabzon is a natural habitat for many tree species such as spruce, fir tree, beech, yellow pine, alder and chestnut trees are grown from the seaside up to 2000 m.
Uzungöl: Declared as a special environmental area in 1989, Uzungöl is a region which has a rich flora and fauna with a green landscape and its green nature meets with melting snow waters and cool rain drops. Uzungöl which every traveller passing through the Black Sea area absolutely stop by is a lake located at 1100 m in the foothills of Soğanlı Mountain. While it is stated it has the oldest forests in the temperate zone of the world, Uzungöl is a tourist attraction for nature lovers since it is snow-covered for five months of a year.
Plateaus: Perhaps the most interesting places of Trabzon which attracts visitors year-round is the plateaus that extends to the sky and fascinates people with its green and rich flora. The most popular ones are Sera Lake and around, Şolma in Maçka district, Mavura and Kiraz Plateaus, Lapazan Plateau, Çaykara-Uzungöl Plateau, Karadağ Plateau, Hıdırnebi and Kuruçam Plateaus, Mount Sis Plateau and Çatma Plateau. It is possible to join camping, skiing and hiking activities in these plateaus most of which can be reached by car. In addition, there are the seasonal plateau festivals and special events keeping the plateau tourism alive by bringing amazing nature with the tourists.
Çal Cave: The cave, known as the second longest cave in the world, is a very interesting underground water canal with its small stream flowing through and its historic castle above. Depending on the season, the amount of water in the cave, which is 8 km long, changes. In the cave where water flows 25-30 cm deep during the summer, this depth rises up to 50 cm during the winter months. There is an easy air movement inside the cave, and fortunately it is open to public visits.
Sera Lake and Balıklı Lake: Sera Lake, on the west of the city, is a dam lake formed by sliding mountain slope. The water surface of the dam, ranges in width from 150-200 meters, decreases over time. Balıklı Lake, on the road to Hıdırnebi is a region with its magnificent nature that visitors use as a picnic and recreation area.
The average temperature of summer months in Trabzon is around 32 °C and the coldest days in winter is around -6 °C. Spring months are rainy and foggy, but autumn months have the ideal temperature. The amount of annual rainfall in the city which has a humid climate is around 800-850 kg. The months having minimum rainfall rate are July and August, and the rainiest month is February.
Trabzon, the city that leaves a mark in the minds of the visitors with its impressive history and fascinating nature, offers a wide range of activities. You can visit the historical Sümela Monastery, the beautiful beaches, the Trabzon Castle, the old monasteries and churches which are used as museums today, discover the interesting lakes and caves, and enjoy the beautiful nature and regional cuisine by joining the festivals in the plateaus.
Outdoor Sports: With its location, high mountains, amazing natural plateaus and a hundred shades of green, Trabzon is a paradise for those who love outdoor activities. Uzungöl, Demirkapi and Karakaya climbing trails are available for those interested in climbing. Jeep and safari activities can be done in areas such as Akcaabat, Düzköy, Kayabaşı Plateau, Lişer Plateau, Şolma Tourism Center. Uzungöl-Karastel and Karaçımah Hills, Karadağ Hıdnebi (Yaylakent) in Akçaabat, and Çalköy district in Düzköy can be preferred for paragliding. Trekking activities are organized in almost all the plateaus of the city. Canoe sport routes are available for those interested in Araklı, Karadere.
Beaches: Trabzon has many beaches that are suitable for swimming and the nearest beach to the city centre is in Ortahisar. Far from the city centre, there are also other beaches, an example is Kaşüstü Beach which is famous for its wide sandy area.
Sümela Monastery ve Vazelon Monastery: The Sümela Monastery, known as “Virgin Mary” among the local people, was built on the steep rocks in Maçka district. It is thought that the monastery was founded by two priests, Barnabas and Sophronios, who came from Athens during the Byzantine period. The frescoes of the monastery, consisting of Kaya Church, a few chapels, kitchen, student rooms, guest house, library and holy ayazma, were made at the begining of 18th century. Vazelon Monastery located in Maçka is also known as the “Girls' Monastery” among the local people. Located in the area covered with pine forests, the building is among the first monasteries of Turkey with its history dating back 1700 years.
Trabzon Castle: Trabzon Castle, of which oldest walls dates back to BC 4, was constructed on the high rocks between Tabakhane and Zağnos Valleys. The castle, which is divided into three parts as Upper Fortress, Inner Fortress, Middle Fortress and Lower Fortress, is also the highest point of the city center.
Hagia Sophia Museum: The Church, which was built in the 13th century, was used as a mosque after Fatih Sultan Mehmet conquered the city in 1461. The building, which is a beautiful example of late Byzantine churches, has a square-cross plan and has a high central dome. The church, which has been visited by various travelers and researchers for centuries, has been opened to public as a museum since 1964.

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